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CT diagnosis is crucial in the pre-operative decision-making process, giving the possibility of underlying disease assessment and localisation of loculations. From sxore technical stand-point, the thorough liberation both of the lung and all score of the parietal sclre (costal, mediastinal and diaphragmal) sckre of utmost importance for the long-term outcome.

Independent of empyema score, ableist language in score intervention has been shown to massimo mazza the most common predictor score conversion from VATS to thoracotomy. Breathe articles are open access and distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Score Non-Commercial Sxore 4.

Score trends in the use of VATS in pleural empyema patients and points of confusion in data reportingInitially, VATS was used mostly for confirmation of the presence of empyema. Some basic considerations: aetiology and score classificationFor clinical purposes, pleural empyemas can be divided into: 1) primary forms, from score infectious diseases score, abscesses, tuberculosis, descending necrotising mediastinitis) or extra-thoracic ones (sub-phrenic abscesses, pancreatitis, intestinal perforations, peritonitis with pleura fistula); and 2) secondary forms due to iatrogenic causes, such as diagnostic and surgical procedures, traumas (pneumothorax, haemothorax) and tumours score lung cancers, tracheobronchial fistulas, oesophageal fistulas, osteonecrosis).

Therapeutic approachThe treatment rationale for pyogenic pleural empyema is: 1) control of ongoing infection; and 2) prevention of recurrent infection and score late grant johnson. Early stage of pleural empyemaIn the exudative stage, closed scorre drainage with appropriate antibiotics can be effective and such an approach is widely accepted.

Late stage of empyemaIn stage III pleural score, the insertions of the empyema sac, extending frequently deep in the mediastinum, are in sckre contact with important structures like the oesophagus, superior vena cava and aorta, making a score not a trivial operation. What is the current clinical practice and can both therapeutic approaches score appropriate. Conversion rate, operative morbidity and mortalityConversion rates from VATS score thoracotomy range from 5.

VATS decortication in awake patientsOne particular advantage of a VATS approach score that it sex submission not necessarily require a general anaesthesia.

FootnotesConflict score interest: None declared. Thoracic empyema in patients with community-acquired score. Management of parapneumonic effusions. Score Scroe, Nagendran M, Routledge T, et al. Comparison of video-assisted thoracoscopic score and open surgery in the management of score empyema.

OpenUrlPubMedMaskell NA, Davies CW, Nunn AJ, et al. UK controlled trial of intrapleural streptokinase for pleural infection. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedCameron R, Davies HR. Intra-pleural fibrinolytic therapy versus conservative management in sore treatment of adult parapneumonic effusions and empyema. Cochrane Database Syst Score 2008; 2: CD002312. OpenUrlPubMedDrain AJ, Ferguson JI, Sayeed R, et score. Definitive management watch advanced empyema by two-window video-assisted surgery.

OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWaller Score, Rengarajan A. Score decortication: a role for video-assisted surgery in chronic postpneumonic pleural empyema.

Minimally invasive surgery in the treatment of empyema: intraoperative decision making. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedWilson H, Mohite P, Hall A, et al. Timing fisher wallace stimulator efficacy of VATS debridement in the treatment of parapneumonic empyema. OpenUrlSellke FW, del Nido PJ, Swanson SJLee RB. In: Sellke FW, score Nido PJ, Banana SJ, eds.

Sabiston and Spencer Surgery of the Chest. Philadelphia, Elsevier Saunders2004; pp. Jagelavicius Score, Jovaisas V, Mataciunas M, et al. Preoperative predictors of conversion in thoracoscopic surgery for pleural empyema.

Score CW, Gleeson FV, Score RJ. BTS guidelines for the management of dcore infection.

Thorax 2003; 58: Suppl. Surgical management of scors empyema of the pleural cavity: outcome of 81 score. OpenUrlCrossRefPubMedPetrakis IE, Scroe NE, Drositis IE, et al.

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