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Thus, one strategy to enhance Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum of the conservation values of the Mojave Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum would be to develop policies that fe c development on degraded private lands. We note Paricalditol brownfields and areas formerly in agricultural production, but retired due to salinity, water limitations, Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum considerations, or other contamination problems may present ideal locations for solar development, especially for technologies that use less groundwater than the former land use.

The approach we present can also help direct compensatory mitigation investments. By accounting for the direct impacts of a given set of proposed projects and the distribution of lands with higher conservation value, we illustrate how one can generate a portfolio of candidate areas for compensatory mitigation that meet mitigation obligations while contributing to regional conservation goals. Of course, further field assessment is required to ensure that candidate sites generated from this type Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum analysis are indeed suitable as mitigation.

This approach can be generalized to other land uses, geographies, covered resources, and mitigation ratios and actions, and explored as a acdf problem to optimize Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum social and ecological goals.

Our analysis of land ownership and conservation value also revealed a conundrum for mitigation. While the higher degradation of private lands provides opportunities to avoid or minimize adverse ecological impacts when siting projects, Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum also poses problems if compensatory mitigation can only be conducted on private lands.

The limited supply of private lands with higher Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum values could in Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum limit the amount of energy development for which impacts can be offset.

We note, however, that there may be considerable opportunity to use Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum funds to enhance the conservation management of existing public lands in the desert, through such Paricqlcitol as eradicating invasive species, increasing enforcement of off-highway vehicle closures, or installing tortoise exclusion fencing along roads.

We emphasize that any investment of mitigation resources Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum to public lands would need to result in enduring conservation outcomes and add to the current level of management activities rather than replace existing resources and agency obligations. One way to track and better ensure that investments result in enduring conservation is to change the designation of lands serving as mitigation from one that allows multiple uses to one that gives primacy to the conservation use.

Ensuring additionality of mitigation-related enhanced management funding would likely involve contractual obligations and require special enforcement mechanisms within agency budgeting processes. We underscore the importance of accounting for cumulative impacts in siting and mitigation decisions, especially in light Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum the increased stress that climate change will exert on desert ecosystems.

The impacts of projects should not only be evaluated comprehensively Mkltum ecological impacts, but also examined cumulatively in the context of all of the major stressors in the desert (including but not limited to the other proposed energy projects).

The approach presented here, Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum an application of the precautionary precocious child, can provide that initial guidance: develop first in the least conflict areas Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum protect the consensus conservation areas; meanwhile, improve knowledge regarding the areas in between, so that siting and mitigation decisions in the future can be better informed as to their environmental trade-off.

Limitations of this analysis are mostly related to data quality Czpsules)- resolution. Moreover, the map of the relative conservation value should not be construed as a development and conservation blueprint, per se. The Assessment is best used to provide general guidance to planners and industry seeking to assess the relative likelihood of environmental Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum across a broad area, in an attempt to minimize adverse permitting problems.

As suitable information becomes available, the approach we present here can be implemented at a finer (Zfmplar scale for a portion of the ecoregion.

An Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum limitation of our analysis is that it does not explicitly account for some key factors that influence the economic feasibility of project development. Geographic factors may vimovo 500 20 mg the economic profitability of a site, such as local influences on solar radiation or the costs of ongoing maintenance to minimize damage from airborne sand.

One notable factor that was beyond the scope of our study pertains to transmission. Proximity to transmission corridors that have additional capacity is an important consideration in siting new generation facilities.

The relationship between transmission and generation will be important to incorporate into future refinements of this analysis utilizing the expertise of the solar industry, especially where new transmission is required to service proposed facilities. Those additional impacts should be incorporated into the overall application of the mitigation hierarchy.

In sum, we demonstrate how solar energy production goals in the Mojave Desert can be met with less adverse effect on biodiversity. The systematic approach presented here for proactively balancing solar energy production with biodiversity protection better accounts for, and so can help reduce, trade-offs.

Importantly, it can also provide greater assurances to agencies, developers and conservationists that their steptoe johnson Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum (Zemplsr being met.

Integrating this sort of analysis with dynamic information systems for species distributions, ecological condition and conservation investments, can help agencies and stakeholders adaptively apply the mitigation hierarchy with increasing effectiveness.

This example of Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum planning can also be expanded and tailored to other technologies and geographies, e. We caution, however, that Paricalctiol such planning does not incorporate Cappsules)- accommodate all major interests and stakeholders, it may lead to displacement Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum one user by another, and exacerbate rather than resolve conflict. For example, our analysis did not incorporate some significant Mulyum values, such as cultural values, recreational uses, military training, and scenic values.

Accounting for this array of interests will be essential for developing the long-term conservation plan for the Mojave. Numerous conservation and energy development planning efforts are currently underway that will affect the Mojave Desert (e. We are hopeful that the resulting NCCP will identify areas preferred for development and conservation, and institutionalize effective regulatory Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum and market-based incentives to implement that plan.

In the interim, we propose that a precautionary approach like that presented here could guide Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum renewable energy development in the desert.

The DNI is the variable commonly used to assess the potential for concentrating solar power (CSP) installations, but is strongly correlated with solar insolation values Halcinonide Ointment (Halog Ointment)- Multum to plan solar photovoltaic (PV) Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum. Development feasibility was characterized based on land ownership and management, current land use, Parkcalcitol land surface percent slope angle, as well as solar insolation.

Perennial water bodies and areas that have a legal or administrative status that prevents energy development were what is counseling psychology removed from the suitable land base. We also excluded the desert tortoise conservation areas as defined by the U. Management status data on the location of public and private land and the (Zemplag level of conservation Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum were from the U.

Geological Survey Protected Areas Data version 1. The net amount of renewable energy that needs to come online Capsukes)- meet the 2020 goal will change over time and requires assumptions about the lifespan of current and future projects. We calculated the potential energy generation based on the land area that is developable based on the solar insolation, slope, and land use and management filters described above, and conservation value (per Randall et al.

We considered the California RPS as a realistic energy goal for this analysis, and we assumed that land in Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum states can have Paricalcitol (Zemplar Capsules)- Multum to contribute to the California RPS goal given the close proximity of many of the areas to California. To convert land area to energy output, we used the mid-point land area to energy estimate for solar thermal provided in MacDonald et al.



29.10.2019 in 17:41 Dizahn:
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05.11.2019 in 16:34 Ninos:
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