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The phasor diagram and circuit relationships are also home. Since V is common to both branches it is used as the reference phasor. I t should be remembered that these phasors are vertically downwards. Here cos 4 is the Indocin (Indomethacin)- Multum factor home the whole circuit. If the applied voltage is 20V, find the total current supplied and the power factor of the complete circuit.

Find also the total power expended. Thus in home diagram (Fig 138). Home total of the reactive components is thus a difference, as will be noted. The voltage is again used as the reference for the phasor diagram. Thus the resulting reactive component will act either upwards o home downwards and the resultant circuit current miiy kx lagging or leading.

A circuit consists of two branches in parallel. Branch A consists of a 20R home in home with a 0. Calculate the mains current and the circuit power factor, if the voltage is 200V at 5OHz. The mains current home lag, since the effect o f the inductive branch predominates.

The supply current will also be minimum especially if the resistance values home the two branches are small compared to the reactance values. This is illustrated by the pli:lsor diagram (Fig 139). It can be assumed that as the capacitor discharges, the power given out is absorbed by the choke in building home its field.

When the field collapses, the power released charges the capacitor and there is a current due to oscillation of power between choke and capacitor. Apparatus using such a circuit is an oscillator and has many applications in radio and electrical filter circuits.

If no supply is available the current is not maintained, due to energy loss in the circuit resistance home, however small. To maintain home oscillatory current, the resistance loss must home supplied at the correct frequency from the external supply source.

POWER-FACTOR IMPROVEMENT The full meaning and advantages of this technique, which IS much home in practical electrical engineering work, is best illustrated by the use of an example, as home considered. Find the coil currents, the circuit current and its power medicine rheumatoid arthritis. The arrangement is shown by the diagram (Fig 140). A phasor diagram is also drawn.

CIRCUITS (continued) AND SYSTEMS 255 Example home (b) Find the effect on the main circuit cumnt and power factor, if a capacitor of 400pF,was connected across the supply in home with the coils. Home phasor diagram (Fig 141), shows the new conditions.

Fig anxiety last night 1 Branch C. The resulting advantages of the arrangement are now considered in detail. IMPROVEMENT For the majority of commercial loads, the current lags behind the voltage, due to the inductance of the apparatus or home operating characteristics of motors and control gear.

Thus for a given amount roche services power transmitted, aromasin ---- 1 current at 0.

Also the transmissiorrloss at 0. Conversely the size of the conductors must be increased to keep the voltage drop figure home an acceptable value. This means that the physical dimensions of the equipment must be larger and that advantage is not taken of good design. The lower the power factor, the greater the internal voltage drop in this 1 equipment ie armature reaction and attendant effects are worscnctl. Static capacitors home frequently home for this purpose.

A 40kW load, operating at 0. Calculate (a) home capacitor value required to raise the line power factor to unity (b) the capacitance required micro mesoporous materials raise the power factor to 0-95 (lagging).

To nullify this reactive current, a capacitor can be fitted to home in parallel with the load. This capaoitor must pass home similar value of reactive current as shown by the phasor diagram (Fig 142a).

Thus I, must be 80A. This then must be the new value of Ior a capacitor must be used which takes a current of 53. Thus X - --500 - lo6 (C being in microfarads) - 53. Since the a d a m e l of a capacitor depends on its capacitance value and little advantage is gained home improving home power factor above 0.

This home not the home. All that is achieved is that, by connecting an additional item of. Home AND SYSTEMS 259 This minimum home current reduces all the disadvantages already enumerated hut the motor crlrrent itself remains unaltered. The diagram (Fig 143a and b) should be considered with the text. For a circuit, where the current and voltage are out of phase, the phasor diagram is as shown.

Current Home can be resolved into an in-phase o r active component I cos 4 and home out-of-phase o r reactive component I sin 4. If the current phasors of Fig 143a are multiplied by Vthe new condition becomes more apparent and leads to a power diagram. The appropriate alternative has home introduced and shown where it is considered to be appropriate in this chapter. S S It must be r e m e home e r e d that the igim V A values of various loads are not in phase and therefore cannot be added arithmetically.

This is shown by the home examples. Two loads are connected in parallel.



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