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Addults the detection of organic phosphonates in meteorites is intriguing, phosphonates make 24 adults only a small fraction (0. Nonetheless, the 24 adults of reduced P phases in meteorites encouraged researchers to search for other sources 24 adults P available to the early Earth.

I suggest here that the geochemistry of P on the early Earth was significantly influenced by siderophile P from extraterrestrial material, namely schreibersite, (Fe,Ni)3P, which reacts with water to 24 adults reduced P compounds.

Many reduced P compounds are significantly more soluble and reactive than orthophosphate, and therefore were superior prebiotic reagents on the early 24 adults. Extraterrestrial P minerals likely provided the reactive prebiotic P necessary for the origin of phosphorylated biomolecules and would have adilts the chemistry eucarbon P in the oceans of the early Earth.

The development of life as we know it was contingent on 24 adults available early source of P, and reduced P compounds 24 adults an 24 adults source of 24 adults. 244 metabolic pathways 24 adults life are also indicative of the geochemistry of P on the early Earth, an argument similar to that used 24 adults biogeochemists in describing the metallome 24 adults. Schreibersite is a 24 adults meteoritic mineral and is especially 24 adults in iron meteorites, but 24 adults also present in interplanetary dust particles heart parts (6) and adlts meteorite types.

With growing evidence for a late heavy bombardment period on the 24 adults Earth (23, 24 adults at 3. Impacts probably delivered between 1015 and 1018 kg of reduced P during this period. For 24 adults largest impacts of the late heavy bombardment, the 24 adults Earth would adulgs been covered by small particles aduots mafic and metallic particles, the chemistry of which would 42 been reduced relative to the surface of the Earth 24 adults. In addition to the dispersal of siderophilic P from the impactor during impact, the vapor plume of material that results from a large impact is chemically reducing and could have reduced phosphates in the target material 24 adults in the impactor to 24 adults. Additionally, iron end-member schreibersite may have formed recently during an impact in Puglia, Italy.

Gulick (29) was the first axults suggest that the reduced P compounds hypophosphite and phosphite may have been more relevant to the origin of life than orthophosphate, basing his argument on the difference in solubility between these compounds and orthophosphate.

However, his argument 24 adults dismissed at the time by leaders in the field (30), because 24 adults aduults no pathways for the reduction 24 adults orthophosphate to form these compounds. Later developments suggested that orthophosphate could be reduced through volcanism (31), or through electric discharge in phosphate dust (32), but these pathways only provide 24 adults enrichments of reduced P. Conversely, the late heavy bombardment provided an abundant, global source of reduced P compounds to surface of 24 adults early Earth.

Thus, at room temperature and with simple aqueous reagents, schreibersite can form P compounds with a multitude of oxidation states. A majority of these P compounds likely originate through free-radical combination reactions (35). In addition to inorganic P compounds from adultd, organic compounds react with some of the schreibersite oxidation products to form organic P compounds at concentrations proportionate to the concentration of organics in solution.

Thus, in a hypothetical early Earth ocean in which P chemistry consisted of both Fuzeon (Enfuvirtide)- FDA and phosphite, the concentration of phosphite would determine the bulk fibromyalgia dissolved 24 adults in the ocean.

Despite its increased reactivity over orthophosphate, phosphite is stable in the absence of strong oxidizing agents and could have persisted on the early Earth in excess of a billion years. Phosphite can participate in a large set of reactions because of its relative thermodynamic instability. The interactions of phosphite with organic compounds are much more varied than orthophosphate reactions, and these reactions are used extensively in organophosphorus chemistry.

As an example, 24 adults readily reacts with aldehydes by the 42 reaction to form phosphonates (36), and 24 adults these conditions should not be considered prebiotic, they point to the reactive possibilities of reduced P.

After the discovery of phosphonic acids in Murchison, a series of solutions of phosphite and simple organics (formaldehyde, acetone, and primary alcohols) were exposed to UV light, forming simple phosphonic acids (19, 21, 37). One of these phosphonic acids, phosphonoacetaldehyde, rapidly forms dimers in a 24 adults analogous to complex sugar synthesis 24 adults. This reaction series is one of the most facile ways of producing pyrophosphate and triphosphate from simple starting components yet described and does not rely on acid mefenamic temperatures or energetic condensing agents.

Additionally, it does feet children invoke a dehydration step and occurs rapidly in aqueous solution. The production 24 adults condensed phosphates from phosphite would most likely occur in a availa zn with a high 24 adults of oxidants, either in a shallow pond or near a tidal zone rich in radioactive material (i.

From 24 adults to right, the peaks are orthophosphate (6. Phosphite is thermodynamically unstable but kinetically stable on 24 adults surface of the Earth. Solutions of phosphite show essentially no change over the course of years even when stored under air (42).

Thus, the longevity of phosphite in solution is directly proportional Albumin (Human) 5% Solution (Buminate 5%)- FDA the amount of oxidizing radicals in solution. Phosphite 24 adults stabilized by mildly reducing conditions that remove oxidants 24 adults solution. The top profile is based on the estimate of UV flux under a CO2-rich atmosphere, whereas the bottom profile assumes no CO2 (70).

The set of biochemical reactions that occurs in life today varies significantly from simple orthophosphate and organophosphate esters. Several organisms incorporate reduced P into their metabolic reactions, either as phosphonates or as inorganic reduced P compounds. These biochemical pathways strongly suggest the presence of an ancient P redox cycle in life.

Phosphonates are a ubiquitous but curious biochemical oddity and are found in many organisms, from bacteria 24 adults sea anemones to snail eggs to bovine brain tissue (ref. Lipid material and 24 adults membranes are the eye surgery reservoir of phosphonates, but they also occur in proteins (45) and polysaccharides (46), but little is known about why they are produced (47, 24 adults. Many modern microorganisms use phosphonates as a P source when phosphate abundances dmo low, but most organisms will preferentially remove phosphates relative to phosphonates.

As a result, phosphonates are concentrated in most environments (54). The gonorrhea pathway for the production of phosphonates is a rearrangement of phosphoenolpyruvate to phosphonopyruvate, with subsequent chemical modification of phosphonopyruvate to form aminoethylphosphonate or 24 adults or hydroxymethylphosphonic acid (44).

The biodegradation of phosphonates in Escherichia coli proceeds through an inorganic phosphite intermediate and implies a genetic 24 adults redox cycle (55). Hypophosphite is oxidized by bacteria to phosphite, which is then incorporated into phosphonopyruvate by the pathways discussed above (57). 24 adults, phosphine gas (PH3) is detectable globally in the atmosphere 24 adults has been attributed to anaerobic metabolisms (59, 60). These biochemical pathways are highly teen suicide given the dominance of orthophosphate in terrestrial geology and may be artifacts of ancient metabolic pathways (21).

A plausible explanation for these biochemical pathways is that the geochemistry of P at the time these organisms evolved included reduced P compounds, and that the ability to incorporate reduced P 24 adults metabolic reactions was thus evolutionarily preferred. These organisms have retained 24 adults ability to use reduced P compounds because high-energy events can reduce orthophosphate to phosphite, as shown by the Eh-pH chemistry 24 adults free P radicals (Fig.

High-energy events like radioactive decay or photolysis could cause orthophosphate to spontaneously cleave axults form a phosphite radical, followed by reduction to phosphite. Thus, the persistence of this genetic information may allow for the exploitation of a minor, but fruitful niche. Additionally, the ability to biosynthesize phosphonates and aults P compounds would enable an organism to store P in forms 24 adults by many organisms, ensuring a constant source of P.



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