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In recent years, network pharmacology strategy has been successfully applied to analyze TCM prescriptions, optimize prescriptions, develop new medicines, screen the active ingredients of TCM, and research drug-symptoms,46 which is useful to explore the mechanisms underlying NTF in ischemic stroke and Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum. Through active compounds screening, drug targeting and pathway enrichment analysis, Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum network pharmacology analysis identified 4 kinds of traditional Chinese medicine, 38 compounds and 43 hub targets in the present research.

Meanwhile, the molecular docking results Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum that the key active compounds in NTF had good binding affinity with 3 hub targets. Judging Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum the topological analysis of the key target-compound network and docking score of the Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum docking method, we selected 3 hub compounds, which were bassianin, cholesteryl ferulate, and hyrcanoside.

It has been reported Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum astragaloside IV and calycosin-7-o-glucoside are the representative components of Radix Astragali, which may exert neuroprotective effects in Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum mainly through their anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-coagulant, and anti-apoptotic actions.

And the HPLC and HRMS results in our study also showed the existence and contents of bassianin, cholesteryl ferulate, hyrcanoside, (4E,6E,2S,3R)-2-N-docosanoyl-4,6-tetradecasphingadienine, ligustrazine hydrochloride, calycosin 7-o-glucoside, and ferulic acid in NTF, which provided the pharmacological evidence for NTF to be used as an agent in the treatment of CIRI.

In this study, numerous targets and pathways were identified to be associated with multiple compounds from different herbs in NTF, which revealed the synergistic property of the compounds in the NTF for the treatment of ischemic stroke and CIRI. The cells of the ischemic core area experience a sudden reduction of blood flow, within just several minutes after ischemic attack with irreversible injury and subsequent cell death, and the main form of cell death is apoptosis.

A dimer consisting of two phosphorylated STAT3 can translocate into the nucleus, Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum regulating the transcription of target genes by binding to DNA. The NTF pretreatment significantly upregulated the expression of p-STAT3 expression in Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum post-ischemic brains in vivo. However, the role of the STAT3 signaling pathway remains controversial because it has been reported that the expression of p-STAT3 was upregulated in the ischemic penumbra of MCAO mouse brains.

Therefore, the role of STAT1, STAT3 and STAT6 in the pathological mechanisms underlying ischemic stroke and CIRI should be further explored in future studies. A previous study has shown that inhibitors of PI3K decrease STAT3 phosphorylation, Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum further suggests aboriginal PI3K and STAT3 have some interdependence. Researches have shown that reducing the number of apoptotic cells in ischemic penumbra may Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum crucial, because the cells here may be salvaged after stroke.

Bcl-2 can promote cell survival, while Bax facilitates apoptosis. Understanding of the biological mechanism of NTF from experimental research may help develop the potential clinical strategy of NTF to treat ischemia stroke and CIRI (Figure 16). We believe that NTF may serve as a promising therapy strategy for ischemic stroke. CIRI, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury; NTF, Naotaifang; OB, oral bioavailability; DL, drug-likeness; GO, gene ontology; KEGG, Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes; rtPA, recombinant tissue plasminogen activator; FDA, American Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum and Drug Administration; TCM, traditional Chinese medicine; BYHWD, Buyang Huanwu decoction; HQ, Radix Astragali; Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum, Rhizoma Ligustici; DL, Pheretima; JC, Bombyx Batryticatus; TCMSP, Traditional Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform; OMIM, Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man; DC, degree centrality; BC, betweenness centrality; CC, closeness centrality; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography; HRMS, high-resolution mass spectrometer; TUNEL, Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling; SD, standard deviation.

The data supporting the findings of this study are available from the corresponding author of compatibility of zodiac signs manuscript upon reasonable request and with permission of all j inorg biochem authors. The animal study was reviewed and approved by the Experimental Animal Health Ethics Committee of Hunan University of Chinese Medicine.

All authors made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; took part in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; agreed to submit to the current journal; gave final approval of the version to be published; and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. This work was supported by the fund of the National Key Research and Development Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology (2018YFC1704904), and the fund for Youth Top Talent Project of Hubei Provincial Health and Family Planning Commission (EWT-2019-48), and the Project Torasemide by Scientific Research Fund of Hunan Provincial Education Department (20A366).

Wu SM, Wu B, Liu M, Rimso-50 (DMSO)- Multum al. Stroke in China: advances and challenges in epidemiology, prevention, and management. Benjamin EJ, Muntner P, Alonso A, et al. Heart disease and stroke statistics-2019 update: a report from the American Heart Association. Liu S, Levine SR, Winn HR. Targeting ischemic penumbra part I: from pathophysiology to therapeutic strategy.

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