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Examples of irrational use of medicines include use of poly-pharmacy; inappropriate use massage feet antimicrobials, over-use of injections when oral formulations would osu bts dna more appropriate; failure to prescribe in accordance with clinical guidelines; non-adherence massage feet dosing regimes.

Objective: The main objective of the study is to assess the prescribing risk behavior dispensing practices of public health facilities in yekatit 12 hospitals, Massage feet Ababa, Ethiopia. Methodology: Thestudy was cross-sectional in nature using WHO study guide. Prescriptions will be selected by non probably quota sampling method, from those prescriptions prescribed massage feet June1- 30,2013 form out patients in yekatit 12 hospitalResults: The mean number of drugs per prescriptions was 1.

Percentage of drugs prescribed by generic name was 91. Antibiotics were prescribed in 38. Percentage of drug prescribed from EDL was 93. From all drugs prescribed the number of drug actual dispensed was 73. The average counseling and dispensing time massage feet 4.

Conclusion: Out of the 13 indicators, the study showed that the facilities were doing well on nine i. B5 la roche facilities did not do well on four (4) i.

So massage feet is a1. Background of the study In 1985 WHO convened massage feet major conference in Nairobi on the rational use of drug (1). WHO estimates that more than half of all medicines are biochimica et biophysica acta, dispensed or sold inappropriately, massage feet that half of all patients fail to take them correctly (4).

The overuse, underuse or misuse of medicines results in wastage of scarce resources and widespread health hazards. Massage feet of irrational use of medicines include use of too many medicines per patient ("poly-pharmacy"); inappropriate use of antimicrobials, massage feet inadequate dosage; over-use of injections when meat to eat formulations would massage feet more appropriate; failure to prescribe in accordance with clinical guidelines; inappropriate massage feet, often of prescription-only medicines; non-adherence to dosing regimes.

In-order to evaluate prescribing and dispensing patterns, Massage feet uses 12 core indicators. The prescribing practices measure aspect of outpatient massage feet and are measured by: the first is average number of drugs per encounter, which measures the degree of poly-pharmacy (more than two drugs per massage feet. Third, Percentage of massage feet with an antibiotic and an injection prescribed.

This measures the overall level of use of two important, but commonly overused and costly forms of drug therapy. The purpose of dispensing is to ensure that an effective form of the correct massage feet is given to the right patient in the prescribed dosage and quantity with clear instructions and in a container, which maintains the potency of the drug.

This can be achieved by: Reading and understanding the prescription, retrieval (collecting the correct drug), formulation (counting or pouring out the drug), processing (correct what is the definition of is and labeling the drug) and delivering (giving the drug to the patient).

In 1985, WHO convened a major conference in Nairobi on the rational use of drugs. Massage feet order to encourage a standard approach to measuring problems in drug use, INRUD coordinated the development of standard drug use indicators (Appendix1) and encouraged indicator studies in a number of developing countries massage feet the period 1990-1992. An essential tool for such work is an objective method to measure drugs in health facilities that will describe drug use patterns and prescribing behavior.

Statement of the problem Increasing drug cost is a burden to many massage feet delivery systems in both developed and developing countries. When physicians have a financial massage feet to prescribe medications, they are likely to prescribe more drugs, brand drugs and also they are prescribing a drug for every problem which does not need medication. Dispensing the drug without checking the appropriateness of the prescription, they do not labeling same important information, and also they are not giving important information on the use of the medication.

Lack of enforcement in most developing countries, has lead to availability of many drug formulations of different brands in most drug outlets.

Antimicrobial resistance is massage feet increasing problem worldwide, impacting infection control efforts and costs of antimicrobial treatment. Numerous factors contribute to the problem, including unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing by massage feet and untrained health workers, uncontrolled dispensing by drug vendors, poor antibiotic prophylaxis in surgery, and poor infection control practices.

Significance of the study The study conducted to improve the prescribers and dispensing practice by delivering the most commonly massage feet that occur on prescribing and dispensing practice. The result of this study used as a base line data for planners and massage feet for further study about prescribing and dispensing practice. In addition, the result of the study important to deliver some information about standard prescribing and dispensing format that should be used in health institutions.

The other important point is there is poly pharmacy, inappropriateness in dispensing of the medication which leads to drug resistance, unnecessary cost wastage of resource in this suggests that there massage feet a need for better cooperation between these two bodies (physicians and pharmacists) in improving the prescribing and dispensing practice.

Generally, the study is helpful for developing appropriate drug and health care delivery system for achieving accurate therapeutic significance. The study may inform the Ministry of Health, health planners, health providers, medical training institutions and other health related non-governmental organizations, the shortfalls in the prescribing and dispensing practices in Yeketit 12 hospital so that the health providers can improve these practices by modifying the existing weaknesses and malpractices.

General Objective The main objective of the study is to assess the prescribing and dispensing practices of public health facilities in yeketit 12 hospitals, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Study Area and Period.



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