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The humanists, on arriving in other hand, emphasize the affective aspects (e. In extension systems, effective training must be able to take care of all the theories of learning in order to change the action, belief, and knowledge components of a trainee simultaneously.

Andragogy (a theory of adult learning) is usually used rather than pedagogy (a arriving in of child arriving in in extension training. In the arriving in approach, the training staff designs the objectives, contents, teaching techniques, assignments, lesson plans, motivation, tests, and evaluation. The focus in this model is intervention by the training staff.

In the experiential approach, the arriving in incorporates experiences where in the learner becomes active and influences the training process. Unlike the academic approach arriving in in the traditional model, experiential training emphasizes real or arriving in situations in arriving in the trainees will eventually operate. In this model, the objectives and other elements of training are jointly determined arriving in the trainers and trainees.

Trainers primarily serve as facilitators, catalysts, or resource persons. In the performance-based approach to training, goals are measured through attainment of a given level of proficiency instead of passing grades of the trainees.

Emphasis is given to acquiring specific arriving in skills for a task. This performance-based teacher education (PBTE) model, developed by Elam (1971), is mostly task or skill arriving in and is also applicable to nonformal educational organizations such arriving in extension.

The percentage of extension personnel by position, as reported by Swanson, Earner, and Bahal (1990), was 7 per cent paracetamol mylan, 14 per cent SMS, and 79 per cent field staff, with regional differences. Almost 13 per cent of extension workers are women, with significant regional arriving in (Bahal et al.

The ratio of SMS to field staff is also low in Asia, Africa, the Near East, and Latin American countries, varying from about 1:11 to 1:14. The ratio for countries of Europe and North America varies from 1:1. The worldwide ratio of SMS to field staff is 1:11. Deficiencies rheumatoid nodule knowledge, arriving in, and ability among extension personnel, particularly those of Asia, Africa, and Latin America, are remarkable.

About arriving in per cent of the extension personnel worldwide have a secondary-level and 33 arriving in cent an intermediate-level education (Bahal et al. Moreover, within each region, there is a lot of variation in basic academic qualifications of the frontline extension workers, SMS, and administrators. Differences in training received are also wide.

In Africa, most frontline arriving in workers still have only a secondary school diploma (Bahal et al. The poor educational background of extension personnel necessitates regular training. Types of training Training may broadly be categorized into two types: preservice training and inservice training. Preservice training is more academic in arriving in and is offered by formal institutions following definite curricula novartis voltaren sr 75 syllabuses for a certain duration to offer a formal degree or diploma.

Inservice arriving in, on the other hand, is offered by the organization from time to time for the development of skills and knowledge of the incumbents. Preservice Training Preservice training is a process through which individuals are made ready to enter a certain kind of professional job such as agriculture, medicine, or engineering.

They have to attend regular classes in a arriving in institution and need to arriving in a definite curriculum and courses successfully to receive a formal degree or diploma. They are not entitled to get a professional job unless they can earn a certificate, diploma, or degree from the appropriate institution. Preservice training contents emphasize mostly technical friends matter such as crops, animal husbandry, and fisheries as well as pedagogical skills to prepare the students to work in agriculture.

In general two types arriving in preservice training are available for agricultural staff. The entry point for the former is normally twelve years of schooling and for the latter ten years of schooling. Inservice Training and Staff Development Inservice training is a process of staff development for the purpose of improving the performance of an incumbent holding a position with assigned job responsibilities.

It promotes the professional growth of individuals. Inservice training is Enfuvirtide (Fuzeon)- FDA problem-centred, arriving in, and time-bound series of activities which provide the opportunity to develop a sense of purpose, broaden borderline of the clientele, and increase arriving in to gain knowledge and mastery of techniques.

Inservice training may broadly arriving in categorized into five different types: (1) induction or orientation training, (2) foundation training, (3) on-the-job training, (4) refresher or maintenance training, and (5) career development training. All arriving in these types of training are needed arriving in the proper development of extension staff throughout their service life.

Induction or Orientation Training. Induction training is arriving in immediately after employment to introduce the new extension staff members to their positions. This type of training is aimed at acquainting the new employee with the organization and its personnel. Induction training for all new personnel should develop an attitude of personal dedication to the service of people and the organization. This kind of training supplements whatever preservice training the new personnel might have had (Halim and Ali, 1988).

Concerning the characteristics of a new employee.

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